# Carry Bit, Overflow Bit and Signed Integers

It has already been explained how the Carry Bit works for addition. Now there was interest in a comment about how it would work for negative numbers.

The point is, that the calculation of the carry bit does not have any dependency on the sign. The nature of the carry bit is that it is meant to be used for the less significant parts of the addition. So assuming we add two numbers and that are having and words, respectively. We assume that and make sure that and are both words long by just providing the necessary number of 0-words in the most significant positions. Now the addition is performed as described by starting with a carry bit of 0 and adding with carry , then and so on up to , assuming that is the least significant word and the most significant word, respectively. Each addition includes the carry bit from the previous addition. Up to this point, it does not make any difference, if the numbers are signed or not.

Now for the last addition, we need to consider the question, if our result still fits in words or if we need one more word. In the case of unsigned numbers we just look at the last carry bit. If it is 1, we just add one more word in the most significant position with the value of , otherwise we are already done with words.

In case of signed integers, we should investigate what can possibly happen. The input for the last step is two signed words and possibly a carry bit from the previous addition. Assuming we have -Bit-words, we are adding numbers between and plus an optional carry bit . If the numbers have different signs, actually an overflow cannot occur and we can be sure that the final result fits in at most words.

If both are not-negative, the most significant bits of and are both . An overflow is happening, if and only if the sum , which means that the result „looks negative“, although both summands were not-negative. In this case another word with value 0 has to be provided for the most significant position to express that the result is while maintaining its already correctly calculated result. It cannot happen that real non-zero bits are going into this new most significant word. Consequently the carry bit can never become 1 in this last addition step.

If both are negative, the most significant bits of and are both . An overflow is happening, if and only if the sum , which means that the result „looks positive or 0“, although both summands were negative. In this case another word with value or , depending on the viewpoint, has to be prepended as new most significant word. In this case of two negative summands the carry bit is always 1.

Now typical microprocessors provide an overflow flag (called „O“ or more often „V“) to deal with this. So the final addition can be left as it is in words, if the overflow bit is 0. If it is 1, we have to signal an overflow or we can just provided one more word. Depending on the carry flag it is for C=0 or all bits 1 ( or , depending on the view point) for C=1.

The overflow flag can be calculated by .
There are other ways, but they lead to the same results with approximately the same or more effort.

The following table shows the possible combinations and examples for 8-Bit arithmetic and :

x<0 or x≥0y<0 or y≥ 0(x+y)%2^8 < 0 or ≥ 0Overflow BitCarry Bitadditional word neededvalue additional wordExamples (8bit)
x≥0y≥0≥000no-0+0
63+64
x≥0y≥0<010yes064+64
127+127
x≥0y<0≥000 or 1no-65+(-1)
127+(-127)
x≥0y<0<000 or 1no-7+(-8)
127+(-128)
0+(-128)
x<0y≥0≥000 or 1no--9 + 12
-1 + 127
-127+127
x<0y≥0<000 or 1no--128+127
-128+0
-1 + 0
x<0y<0≥011yes-1-64 + (-65)
-128+(-128)
x<0y<0<001no--1 + (-1)
-1 + (-127)
-64 + (-64)

If you like, you can try out examples that include the carry bit and see that the concepts still work out as described.

# Source Code of Apple-iOS leaked

It seems that the parts of the source code of Apple’s iOS 9 have leaked via github. They might have been removed from there, while you are reading this, but probably they will be passed around in the internet anyway.

Some sources say that this is a risk to security. It might be, but in the end cryptography specialists tend to consider the availability of the source code as an advantage for security, because it can be analyzed by everyone, vulnerabilities can be found and published and of course more easily be corrected if the source is available to everyone. Hiding the source code is some kind of „security by obfuscation“, which is not really a strong mechanism and it should be based on verifiable secure mechanisms, as successfully applied by Linux and other open source operating systems. But this might not be fully true, if the sources are just passed around in somewhat closed circles and not easily available to the general public.

This does not make iOS open source, because the licenses that Apple imposes on their software are still valid and to my understanding they do not make this part of the system open source, which means much more than just being able to read the source code of a certain version that might already be outdated. Please observe that if the source code that you might find on github is really coming from Apple, their original license and not the one mentioned in github applies.

To put Jail breaking somewhere near security breaches is wrong, because this is an action done by the owner of the device with his or her own device at own risk. This should be everyone’s right to do so and there should be nothing wrong with making it easier. I know, we are not living in a perfect world…

So please relax. If Apple has done a good job, there will not be too bad exploits and if they are still doing a good job, they will quickly fix any exploits that show up. And if you like to have an open source system, you should still consider using something else.

# Java Properties Files and UTF-8

Java uses a nice pragmatic file format for simple configuration tasks and for internationalization of applications. It is called Java properties file or simply „.properties file“. It contains simple key value pairs. For most configuration task this is useful and easy to read and edit. Nested configurations can be expressed by simple using dots („.“) as part of the key. This was introduced already in Java 1.0. For internationalization there is a simple way to create properties files with almost the same name, but a language code just before the .properties-suffix. The concept is called „resource bundle“. Whenever a language specific string is needed, the program just knows a unique key and performs a lookup.

The unpleasant part of this is that these files are in the style of the 1990es encoded in ISO-8859-1, which is only covering a few languages in western, central and northern Europe. For other languages as a workaround an \u followed by the 4 digit hex code can be used to express UTF-16 encoding, but this is not in any way readable or easy to edit. Usually we want to use UTF-8 or in some cases real UTF-16, without this \u-hack.

A way to deal with this is using the native2ascii-converter, that can convert UTF-8 or UTF-16 to the format of properties files. By using some .uproperties-files, which are UTF-8 and converting them to .properties-files using native2ascee as part of the build process this can be addressed. It is still a hack, but properly done it should not hurt too much, apart from the work it takes to get this working. I would strongly recommend to make sure the converted and unconverted files never get mixed up. This is extremely important, because this is not easily detected in case of UTF-8 with typical central European content, but it creates ugly errors that we are used to see like „sch�ner Zeichensalat“ instead of „schöner Zeichensalat“. But we only discover it, when the files are already quite messed up, because at least in German the umlaut characters are only a small fraction of the text, but still annoying if messed up. So I would recommend another suffix to make this clear.

The bad thing is that most JVM-languages have been kind of „lazy“ (which is a good thing, usually) and have used some of Java’s infrastructures for this, thus inherited the problem from Java.

Another way to deal with this is to use XML-files, which are actually by default in UTF-8 and which can be configured to be UTF-16. With some work on development or search of existing implementations there should be ways to do the internationalization this way.

Typically some process needs to be added, because translators are often non-IT-people who use some tool that displays the texts in the original languages and accepts the translation. For good translations, the translator should actually use the software to see the context, but this is another topic for the future. Possibly there needs to be some conversion from the data provided by the translator into XML, uproperties, .properties or whatever is used. These should be automated by scripts or even by the build process and merge new translations properly with existing ones.

Anyway, Java 9 Java 9 will be helpful in this issue. Finally Java-9-properties that are used as resource bundles for internationalization can be UTF-8.