# Scanning, sorting and processing large numbers of photos

I guess for most of us this is more an issue of their private life rather than done professionally, and those woo do this for money should already have answers for everything…. But the IT aspects of this are interesting anyway…

So some of us, including me, have hundreds or thousands of photographs that have been created using analog photography. I am still using it, because I have a good equipment, the prices and availability for films and prints and scanning of the negatives to a CD are still good. My equipment is good and I am neither willing to give that up nor to do a major investment. It will come some day in the future and I expect that within five to ten years the reasonably priced and ubiquitous offers for handling of negative films and prints will disappear.

Anyway it is a good idea to scan all the slides and negatives, at least the ones that are of any interest. It is easier and cheaper to copy them, to get prints and to do some improvements with software like Gimp prior to creating prints. Also it is also possible to use and share them online.

Scanning with a flat bed scanner is not an option for negatives, it works with prints, but I think that it is too slow and I do not like the loss in quality due to the unnecessary intermediate step. This leaves two options, getting a negative scanner myself or using a service. So it is good to assume that they are already scanned for now. I organize the photos in a directory structure. The names should contain only 7-Bit-ASCII-characters, but no spaces, to be easier accessible by scripts and on the shell. I have scripts to rename them to this pattern, for directories and for files. They can be found under my github project „photo processing scripts“ with names:
* rename-canonical
* rename-dir-canonical
Another interesting issue is finding and removing duplicates, but since the name of the file and its position int the file system do have some meaning, this needs some attention. When two identical files A and B are found, there are five resolutions:
* rm A (remove A, leave B)
* rm B (remove B, leave A)
* rm A ; ln -s B A (make A a softlink to B)
* rm B ; ln -s A B (make B a softlink to A)
* rm B ; ln -f A B (make B a hardlink of A. Apart from the inode number this is equivalent to the opposition direction)
Which of these is actually prefered? My scripts picks the last option, but does not actually perform it. Instead it just create output of the shell commands, which can be piped to a file or directly to sh, in which case they are immediately executed. Otherwise it is possible to edit the command, filter them or even change them with a perl one-liner. This can be found here:
* find-dups
For viewing the photos in the browser, I have added another script, that is called
* create-foto-index
It searches the current directory and all sub directories, except those starting with a dot („.“) recursively. For each image file a thumb nail image is needed, which is eather found in the .thumbs directory or created using the script
* scale-image
Then an index.html file is created in each dictory having links to its child directories, the neighboring directories and the parent directory. For each image the thumbnail is included and it is a link to the full sized image. With this it is easily possible to vieww the whole album in a browser locally.
Some images know their orientation already from the camera or phone, but they appear wrong anyway. These can be fixed automatically running the script
* auto-rotate
in the directory.
I have a web server and a CGI-script running:
* cgi/mark-images.cgi
which allows me to mark images with a checkbox or with a string. Using letters „D“ for delete, „R“ for rotate right (90 degree clockwise), „L“ for rotate left (90 degries counter clockwise) and „F“ for flip (rotate 180 degrees) and then press the OK button.
Running the script
* rotate-checked
which will delete and rotate the images according to the choices in the form.

This is already quite a useful situation. Images that are needed for prints or for the web might need some processing with GIMP:
* possibly rotate them in such a way that the horizon is horizontal and vertical lines are vertical, at least in the middle of the image.
* possibly correct perspective
* possibly sharpen
* possibly correct contrast and brightness
* possibly correct color saturation and colors
* cut out what is really interesting
* save it under a different name
* call create-foto-index again.
The webform and the CGI-script can be used for picking which images to edit. After having pressed OK it will be done like this:
 gimp egrep 'jpg$' </var/lib/wwwrun/mark-fotos/marked.dat &  In a similar way images from a directory can be selected in indexf.html and then extracted to a ZIP:  zip my-archive.zip egrep 'jpg$' </var/lib/wwwrun/mark-fotos/marked.dat 
which can be given to somebody or uploaded for creating prints or just unpacked in anther directory to have only the good images.

There are some more issues, which I might address in another article.

# How to make a scanned PDF smaller (Linux)

When scanning a paper, it is possible to use a lot of parameters within xsane. The output format can be chosen also, for example PNG, JPG or PDF. The outcome may be a PDF-file that is way too big, easily more than 10 megabytes for a single page. It is quite easy to transform it to a smaller file:

convert -density 200x200 -quality 60 -compress jpeg \ big-scanned-file.pdf compressed-scanned-file.pdf

Unless you scan very often, it is easier to scan once with a relatively high resolution and then run this conversion with different values for quality and density rather than running the time consuming scan with different xsane settings.

# How to create ISO Date String

It is a more and more common task that we need to have a date or maybe date with time as String.

There are two reasonable ways to do this:
* We may want the date formatted in the users Locale, whatever that is.
* We want to use a generic date format, that is for a broader audience or for usage in data exchange formats, log files etc.

The first issue is interesting, because it is not always trivial to teach the software to get the right locale and to use it properly… The mechanisms are there and they are often used correctly, but more often this is just working fine for the locale that the software developers where asked to support.

So now the question is, how do we get the ISO-date of today in different environments.

## Linux/Unix-Shell (bash, tcsh, …)

date "+%F"

## TeX/LaTeX

 \def\dayiso{\ifcase\day \or 01\or 02\or 03\or 04\or 05\or 06\or 07\or 08\or 09\or 10\or% 1..10 11\or 12\or 13\or 14\or 15\or 16\or 17\or 18\or 19\or 20\or% 11..20 21\or 22\or 23\or 24\or 25\or 26\or 27\or 28\or 29\or 30\or% 21..30 31\fi} \def\monthiso{\ifcase\month \or 01\or 02\or 03\or 04\or 05\or 06\or 07\or 08\or 09\or 10\or 11\or 12\fi} \def\dateiso{\def\today{\number\year-\monthiso-\dayiso}} \def\todayiso{\number\year-\monthiso-\dayiso} 
This can go into a file isodate.sty which can then be included by \include or \input Then using \todayiso in your TeX document will use the current date. To be more precise, it is the date when TeX or LaTeX is called to process the file. This is what I use for my paper letters.

## LaTeX

(From Fritz Zaucker, see his comment below):
 \usepackage{isodate} % load package \isodate % switch to ISO format \today % print date according to current format 

## Oracle

 SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'YYYY-MM-DD') FROM DUAL; 
On Oracle Docs this function is documented.
It can be chosen as a default using ALTER SESSION for the whole session. Or in SQL-developer it can be configured. Then it is ok to just call
 SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL; 

Btw. Oracle allows to add numbers to dates. These are days. Use fractions of a day to add hours or minutes.

## PostreSQL

(From Fritz Zaucker, see his comment):
 select current_date; —> 2016-01-08 
 select now(); —> 2016-01-08 14:37:55.701079+01 

## Emacs

In Emacs I like to have the current Date immediately:
 (defun insert-current-date () "inserts the current date" (interactive) (insert (let ((x (current-time-string))) (concat (substring x 20 24) "-" (cdr (assoc (substring x 4 7) cmode-month-alist)) "-" (let ((y (substring x 8 9))) (if (string= y " ") "0" y)) (substring x 9 10))))) (global-set-key [S-f5] 'insert-current-date) 
Pressing Shift-F5 will put the current date into the cursor position, mostly as if it had been typed.

## Emacs (better Variant)

(From Thomas, see his comment below):
 (defun insert-current-date () "Insert current date." (interactive) (insert (format-time-string "%Y-%m-%d"))) 

## Perl

In Perl we can use a command line call
 perl -e 'use POSIX qw/strftime/;print strftime("%F", localtime()), "\n"' 
or to use it in larger programms
 use POSIX qw/strftime/; my \$isodate_of_today = strftime("%F", localtime()); 
I am not sure, if this works on MS-Windows as well, but Linux-, Unix- and MacOS-X-users should see this working.

If someone has tried it on Windows, I will be interested to hear about it…
Maybe I will try it out myself…

## Perl 5 (second suggestion)

(From Fritz Zaucker, see his comment below):
 perl -e 'use DateTime; use 5.10.0; say DateTime->now->strftime(„%F“);‘ 

## Perl 6

(From Fritz Zaucker, see his comment below):
 say Date.today; 
or
 Date.today.say; 

## Ruby

This is even more elegant than Perl:
 ruby -e 'puts Time.new.strftime("%F")' 
will do it on the command line.
Or if you like to use it in your Ruby program, just use
 d = Time.new s = d.strftime("%F") 

Btw. like in Oracle SQL it is possible add numbers to this. In case of Ruby, you are adding seconds.

It is slightly confusing that Ruby has two different types, Date and Time. Not quite as confusing as Java, but still…
Time is ok for this purpose.

## C on Linux / Posix / Unix

 #include #include #include 

 main(int argc, char **argv) { 

 char s[12]; time_t seconds_since_1970 = time(NULL); struct tm local; struct tm gmt; localtime_r(&seconds_since_1970, &local); gmtime_r(&seconds_since_1970, &gmt); size_t l1 = strftime(s, 11, "%Y-%m-%d", &local); printf("local:\t%s\n", s); size_t l2 = strftime(s, 11, "%Y-%m-%d", &gmt); printf("gmt:\t%s\n", s); exit(0); } 
This speeks for itself..
But if you like to know: time() gets the seconds since 1970 as some kind of integer.
localtime_r or gmtime_r convert it into a structur, that has seconds, minutes etc as separate fields.
stftime formats it. Depending on your C it is also possible to use %F.

## Scala

 import java.util.Date import java.text.SimpleDateFormat ... val s : String = new SimpleDateFormat("YYYY-MM-dd").format(new Date()) 
This uses the ugly Java-7-libraries. We want to go to Java 8 or use Joda time and a wrapper for Scala.

## Java 7

 import java.util.Date import java.text.SimpleDateFormat

 

... String s = new SimpleDateFormat("YYYY-MM-dd").format(new Date()); 
Please observe that SimpleDateFormat is not thread safe. So do one of the following:
* initialize it each time with new
* make sure you run only single threaded, forever
* use EJB and have the format as instance variable in a stateless session bean
* protect it with synchronized
* protect it with locks
* make it a thread local variable

In Java 8 or Java 7 with Joda time this is better. And the toString()-method should have ISO8601 as default, but off course including the time part.

## Summary

This is quite easy to achieve in many environments.
I could provide more, but maybe I leave this to you in the comments section.
What could be interesting:
* better ways for the ones that I have provided
* other databases
* other editors (vim, sublime, eclipse, idea,…)
* Office packages (Libreoffice and MS-Office)
* C#
* F#
* Clojure
* C on MS-Windows
* Perl and Ruby on MS-Windows
* Java 8
* Scala using better libraries than the Java-7-library for this
* Java using better libraries than the Java-7-library for this
* C++
* PHP
* Python
* Cobol
* JavaScript
* …
If you provide a reasonable solution I will make it part of the article with a reference…