Additional indices („indexes“ in Oracle’s English) apart from the primary key are extremely important for the performance of databases.
There is this magic behind it, when a complicated query with multiple joins runs slowly and magically becomes faster when adding the right index and the right hint or does not become faster at all, even though the index being added could be so useful.. I leave this to the DBAs.
Some thoughts about indexing in general. Each index costs a little bit of storage and a little bit of performance when writing to the table, especially when inserting or when updating columns that are included in the index. This is more, if the amount of data per row in the index is more. And the helpfulness of the index is more, if it allows drilling down to a much smaller number of rows, not necessarily one. I would call this selectiveness of the index.
An interesting issue arises when combining multiple indices and there is interest in selecting by any one of them or their conjunction. This leads to Z-curve based indices, an issue worth an article by itself, maybe in the future.
Generally it is desirable to only include fields in the index that contribute to selecting the data. That means that adding this column to the where criteria of a select significantly reduces the number of records found. If that is not the case, the overhead of maintaining this field as part of the index and blowing up the index operations for both read and write access is probably not worth it. Sometimes a field with very little selectiveness is included in an index that is supporting a unique constraint. That may be ok, if the table is small, but for larger tables, rethinking the database design should be considered. I have seen this happening when several quite different kinds of records where stored in the same table. Splitting up to different tables would have resolved this. Other cases require different answers.
An interesting issue is also a situation, where many selects contain columns A and B in the WHERE-clause. By itself column A as well as column B are quite selective. But they are quite strongly correlated, so adding the other of the two only marginally contributes to the selectiveness of the index. In this case it should be considered, which of the three options, having A, B or both in the index is best. Try it out, discuss it with a good DBA. Yes, I have seen many people calling themselves DBA who were not really good in their area and I have learned what really good DBAs can do. Get one for a few days, when designing a serious database…