Program Functionality without Code

Depending on the programming language and the frameworks we use, it is possible to have program functionality that is not happening in actual code that we write in that language. It seems weird, but actually it is something that we have been doing for decades and it has been sold to us as being extremely powerful and useful and sometimes it actually is. Aspect oriented programming is mostly based on this idea…

Typical examples are things we want to be taken care of but we do not want to actually write them ourselves..

Some of these look really great and who wants to deal with memory management today? Unless we do real time programming or special security code where information may not exist in the memory for longer than the actual processing, this is just what we successfully and without too much pain are doing all the time.

While some of these look really great, and have become more or less om there is also some danger in having some very powerful implicit functionality, like transaction management. While it looks tempting to delegate transaction management to a framework, because it is annoying and it is not really understood very well by most application developers, there comes some danger with it. This is even worse if it is used in conjunction with something like JPA or Hibernate… Assuming we have a framework that wraps methods marked with an annotation like „@Transactional“, meaning that this method call should be wrapped into a transaction (java-like pseudo-code):

public X myMethod(Y y)  {
   X result = do_something(y);
   return result;

being roughly equivalent to

public  X myMethod(Y y) {
  TransactionContext ctx = getTransactionContext();
  try {
      X result = do_something(y);
      return result;
   } catch (Exception ex) {
      throw ex;

Yes, it is more elegant to just annotate it.
But now we program something like this:

public Function myMethod(Y y) {

where we actually enclose something into the function and give it back. Now when calling the function, we might get an error, because it encloses stuff from the time, when the transaction was actually still open, while it has been committed by the time, the function is actually called. So in frameworks that force the usage of such annotated transaction handling, such beautiful functional style programming patterns may actually not work and need to be avoided or at least constrained to the cases that do still work. This can be a reasonable price to pay, but it is important, to understand the constraints, that come with this implicit functionality.

Another interesting area that comes with a lot of potential functionality is correlated with authorization. Assuming we have a company that sells some services or products and we have key account managers that use the software we have written. Now for whatever reasons, they should only be able to see the data about their own customers, possibly data for customers for whose key account manager they are the deputy. Or if they are the boss of some key account managers, maybe they can see all of their data…

Now a function

List listCustomers() {

gives different results, depending on who is using it. This introduces an implicit invisible parameter. And however smart the user of this software is, he only sees what he is supposed to see, unless the software has some vulnerabilities, which it probably has.

So whenever we read such code that we have not written ourselves and have not written yesterday, there may be surprises about what it does. It is an interesting question how to test this with a good coverage of all constellations for implicit parameters. Anyway, we have to get used to it and embrace it, it is an integral part of our software ecosystem. But it is also important to use these powerful mechanisms only where they are really so helpful that it is worth the loss in clarity and explicitness.

While annotations are at least in place to be found, there are also other ways. Typically xml files can be used to configure such stuff. Or it can be done programmatically in a totally different place of the software by setting up some hooks, for example. Without good documentation or good information flow within the team, this may be hard to find.

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