Checked Exceptions in Java

In Java it is possible to declare a method with a „throws“-clause. For certain exceptions, that are not extending „RuntimeException“ or „Error“, this is actually required.

What looked like a good idea 25 years ago has proven to be a dead end. I do not know of any other major programming language that opts for declaring exceptions in this way. Slightly newer frameworks extend all their exceptions from RuntimeException, thus avoiding the need to declare them. Even in relatively early Java there was a weird way of working with exceptions in EJB, when it was required to write an interface and an implementation for the EJB. But it was strongly discouraged to let the implementation implement the interface, because it threw different exceptions. It was not the only weird thing about early EJB, of course. But without checked exceptions it would at least have been possible to let the implementation implement its interface.

We are now able to use Java 13 and as of Java 8 lambdas were introduced. With the introduction of lambdas the declared exceptions became especially painful and for this reason even Oracle has created twins for some essential exceptions that derive from RuntimeException, especially IOException.

We should face it: The throws clause has turned out to be a mistake and we should avoid this mistake by just using exceptions that do not have to be declared, at least in our APIs. It is not the only mistake, see Criticism of Java. Some of my other favorites are the lack of operator overloading for numeric types, the weird concept of Serializable and the lack of natively immutable collections and the lack of a convenient way to write some collections as code. But these issues are being worked on and we will eventually see some progress.


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